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Clair Cameron Patterson and the exact Age of the Earth,Schools menu

It remained a puzzle until the discovery of nuclear fusion, the Sun’s actual energy source, in the s. It was also astrophysics that finally provided a method for dating the Earth itself. In the early twentieth century, it was discovered that some chemical elements decay into others at highly stable rates Dating the Earth. The Map That Changed the World • The relative geologic time scale has a sequence of – eons –eras – periods – epochs – but no numbers • he announced that Earth AdRead Reviews & Compare The Best Dating Sites Out There! Compare Big Range of Dating Sites Today. Find Your Perfect Match Online Now!Date in Your Area · Dating Sites Comparison · Start Dating Online! · Meet Canadian SinglesZoosk - Best Dating Site - $/month · Match - Best for romance - $/month AdEveryone Knows Someone Who's Met Online. Join Here, Browse For Free. Everyone Know Someone Who's Met Online. Start Now and Browse for blogger.com has been visited by 10K+ users in the past monthSimple Matching Process · Single Men & Women · % Satisfaction · Guaranteed DatesTypes: Singles Over 40, Seniors Dating, Mature Singles AdMeet Local Wealthy Singles & Find Your Perfect Love Match. Join Free!We'll send you Potential Matches here Browse Profiles · Meet Local Members Today · Join Free Now ... read more

The discovery of this background radiation in the s was strong evidence for a beginning a Big Bang. Its detailed study in the last two decades, with major contributions from past and present Members of the Institute, has enabled us to determine the age of the universe to incredible precision: While we know the age of the Sun to about 0. It would not even be true of our Sun without meteoritic dating. Stars change little over billions of years: the Sun would have looked much the same to the dinosaurs as it does to us.

However slowly though, stars do evolve. The same physics applies to balloons: filling a balloon with helium will keep it aloft, but switch out the helium for the same mass of heavier air molecules and you need a heater to keep it in the air a hot-air balloon. The rate of nuclear reactions goes up as the core temperature rises, and the Sun shines more brightly.

It is about 30 percent brighter today than when the Earth was young. We estimate the ages of stars by simulating them on a computer and trying to match their properties to those of the stars we see.

The process relies on a lot of measurements and simplifying assumptions—from the temperature-dependent rates of many different nuclear ­reactions, to the absorbing and emitting properties of atoms under temperatures and pressures inaccessible on Earth, to the treatment of convection and rotation in the stellar interior. A full three-dimensional simulation of a star over its entire lifetime is well beyond the reach of any supercomputer.

The basic picture of stellar evolution was worked out decades ago: stars use up their hydrogen fuel, their cores contract and heat up, and sufficiently massive stars can fuse the helium into heavier and heavier elements. Eventually, either a star cannot attain the temperatures and pressures needed to fuse the next element, or it has fused all the way to iron the most stable element and cannot extract any more nuclear energy. The stellar core becomes a compact remnant a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole , and its outer layers either drift off into space or are thrown off violently in a supernova.

The lifetime and fate of a star depend mostly on its mass, with massive stars living short lives, shining brightly, and dying in supernovae. While the outline of stellar evolution is clear, it is the details that matter for ­stellar ages.

Advances are made with careful improvements to stellar modeling, and typically make small differences in the results.

Occasionally, though, it becomes possible to model an important physical effect that was previously neglected. This is now the case with stellar rotation. Rotating stars burn more hydrogen over their lives; they live longer and shine brighter than their nonrotating counterparts. Rotating stellar models are forcing us to reconsider the ages of nearby star clusters, making them as much as 25 percent older than had been thought.

These cluster ages are often used to anchor other dating techniques. Revising them could lead to a sort of domino effect, where many physical processes happen a bit more slowly than we had thought.

More intriguingly, stellar rotation may also explain a recent puzzle. Some star ­clusters seem to show a range of several hundred million years in age, much longer than standard star formation theory predicts. Just a few million years after forming, the most massive stars in a cluster end their lives as powerful supernova explosions, blowing away the remaining interstellar gas and cutting off star formation.

Stellar rotation provides a simple solution: rotating stars can mix more fuel into their cores, increasing their supply of available energy and slowing the stellar aging process.

These clusters have a range not of ages , but of aging rates. The effect is even stronger when considering that rapid rotation flattens a star. The poles of a rotating star are hotter than the equator; someone viewing the star pole-on will see a higher temperature and a larger area. Vega, one of the brightest stars in the night sky, is a very rapid rotator seen nearly pole-on. Viewed edge-on, Vega would only appear to be half as bright. A population of Vega clones oriented in all directions would show a wide range of apparent temperatures and luminosities, exactly the properties that we use to infer ages.

As stellar models continue to improve, a new tool has begun to offer a window into stellar interiors. Our best data on the interior of the Earth comes from measuring vibrations, from earthquakes to waves crashing on a shore, as they travel through rock, mantle, and core.

These waves propagate differently depending on the material and allow us to peer inside the Earth. The same thing happens in stars, where convection and mixing stir up the stellar interior, which vibrates in response. We can detect these vibrations as tiny fluctuations in brightness produced by waves on the stellar surface. By measuring their frequencies, we learn about the conditions deep in the stellar interior.

The Kepler satellite is famous for detecting thousands of exoplanets by their transits across the faces of their host stars. These have allowed us to probe far below the stellar surface, into the cores where hydrogen fuses into helium over billions of years.

The composition of the core tells us how much hydrogen has been burned, while the amount of starlight tells us how fast the core must be using up its nuclear fuel. Kepler has now brought the former measurement within reach. The rate at which daughter isotopes accumulate is dependent on the amount of parent isotope present.

Since U has a much shorter half-life, a larger fraction of the initial U present in the rock will have decayed compared to U. Therefore, Pb will accumulate at a slower rate than Pb, causing the isochron to decrease in slope with increasing age.

The use of lead isotope ratios makes this isochron self-checking. A large scattering of measurements would indicate the sample is multi-stage rather than single-stage, making the isochron unreliable.

Another situation in which single-stage systems give unreliable information is the extraction of lead from uranium to form lead ore. It is possible that a system could undergo a geological process that extracts lead, leaving the new system without any uranium. If that system were dated at that point in time, it would fall on the isochron and give the correct age of the mineral.

However, without any uranium present, accumulation of daughter isotopes ceases even though time continues to pass. Such events produce a frozen record, giving the amount of time from crystallization to extraction of lead to form lead ore. Such ages are very useful because they can measure time forward from some known event in the past, such as the formation of the earth.

The difficulties with single-stage systems can be circumnavigated with multi-stage systems. Though multi-stage lead samples cannot be used for generating isochrons, they can be used to produce valuable information through concordia-discordia plots. These plots are also self-checking and are useful for dating old rocks with complex histories. The plots can still produce valuable and accurate data using rocks that have been subjected to heating and metamorphic events Dalrymple This utility is due to the fact that the concordia-discordia method uses the simultaneous decay of U to Pb and U to Pb to tabulate age.

A sample concordia diagram from Dalrymple is shown in Figure 4. The change in ratios of parent to daughter isotopes over time is used to construct an age curve called a concordia. Since lead loss from a mineral does not fractionate the isotopes, the resulting change in parent to daughter isotope ratios will fall on a line called discordia, which connects the original age on concordia to the age on concordia of lead loss.

This method requires minerals that contain either no initial lead or negligible amounts of initial lead, but some such minerals can be found in igneous and metamorphic rocks Dalrymple As stated above, the Gerling-Holmes-Houtermans model requires that assumptions about the genetic relationship between the Earth and meteorites be made. Houtermans calculated the time required for lead composition of primordial lead samples to decay to the lead composition of young ores.

He used young terrestrial ores to obtain data for young ores and assumed the lead composition of the meteorite Canyon Diablo was representative of primordial lead. His result was 4. Houtermans did not provide a justification as to why the origins of the Earth and meteorites should be related, but Claire C. Patterson did. Patterson suggested that Earth lead would fall on the meteorite isochron if it had evolved in a closed system with the same initial lead composition as the meteorite over the past 4.

He supported this argument with lead measurements taken from deep ocean sediment. He later partnered with V. Murthy to strengthen the argument by showing that the meteoritic geochron and terrestrial geochron are nearly identical and probably evolved from the same uranium-lead system Dalrymple Some Creationist groups are attacking the reliability of radioisotope dating.

The RATE team cites isochrons obtained using Earth samples to claim that one of four types of discordance result when the mineral isochron method is applied as a test of the assumptions of radioisotope dating.

Since radioisotope data gathered by the RATE team demonstrates all four categories of isochron discordance, the team states that "the assumptions of radioisotope dating must be questioned" Austin Paul S.

Taylor, writing for the ChristianAnswers. Net website, also calls the assumptions of radioisotope dating into question. He cites the problem of initial amounts of daughter isotope and the assumption of closed systems in addition to other arguments Taylor Despite the questions raised by the RATE team and other groups, lead isotopes are generally considered to be a reliable method for dating the Earth, giving an approximate age of 4.

The same was long true of the cosmos. The ancient Greeks Eratosthenes and Aristarchus measured the size of the Earth and Moon, but could not begin to understand how old they were. With space telescopes, we can now even measure the distances to stars thousands of light-years away using parallax, the same geometric technique proposed by Aristarchus, but no new technology can overcome the fundamental mismatch between the human lifespan and the timescales of the Earth, stars, and universe itself.

Despite this, we now know the ages of the Earth and the universe to much better than 1 percent, and are beginning to date individual stars. Our ability to measure ages, to place ourselves in time as well as in space, stands as one of the greatest achievements of the last one hundred years.

In the Western world, the key to the age of the Earth was long assumed to be the Bible and its account of creation.

Creation dating required careful accounting of the chronology given in Genesis and then matching it to historical events recorded elsewhere. is the most famous result and is still accepted by many Biblical literalists , scientists and theologians including Maimonides, Isaac Newton , and Johannes Kepler also worked out dates around B. These estimates were not seriously challenged until the emergence of modern geology in the eighteenth century.

In the mids, the Scottish geologist James Hutton proposed that the processes of erosion, sedimentation, and volcanism that we observe today happened much the same way in the past. Acting over many millions of years, they could explain the geological record without recourse to the great flood of Noah.

Charles Lyell popularized the concept of uniformitarianism in the mids and argued that the Earth had to be very old indeed. More generally, uniformitarianism holds that the physical laws and processes we see today are the key to understanding the past. This is the idea that, today, enables scientists including many past and present Members of the Institute to understand the afterglow of the Big Bang and to see the universe as it was , years after it formed.

Astrophysics first had something to add to the ques­tion of ages with the discovery of thermodynamics in the late s. The gradual contraction of the Sun due to gravity could be a source of energy, replenishing the energy radiated away by sunshine.

The Sun must be shrinking for this explanation to work. Lord Kelvin calculated that the Sun could only have sustained its current luminosity for about 20—40 million years.

This was much too short for the geologists. It was also astrophysics that finally provided a method for dating the Earth itself. In the early twentieth century, it was discovered that some chemical elements decay into others at highly stable rates. By measuring these rates, and the relative amounts of parent and daughter atoms in a rock, scientists could measure how long it had been since the rock solidified.

The problem was that even the oldest rocks were not as old as the Earth itself. The ­solution lay in space, where asteroids have remained essentially unchanged since the formation of the solar system. In , Clair Cameron Patterson measured the abundances of three isotopes of lead in meteorites and calculated that the Earth must be about 4.

Small uncertainties in this number exist not because of any shortcomings of radioactive dating, but because we do not know the exact order in which the solar system formed. We can measure the ages of tiny grains in meteorites, called chondrules, to just , years out of 4. The measurement of the age of the universe is a similar triumph.

If galaxies are flying apart now, they must have been closer together in the past, and we can keep turning the clock back until all galaxies lay on top of one another. The universe at this time would have been incredibly hot and dense, bathed in radiation that could still be seen today. The discovery of this background radiation in the s was strong evidence for a beginning a Big Bang. Its detailed study in the last two decades, with major contributions from past and present Members of the Institute, has enabled us to determine the age of the universe to incredible precision: While we know the age of the Sun to about 0.

It would not even be true of our Sun without meteoritic dating. Stars change little over billions of years: the Sun would have looked much the same to the dinosaurs as it does to us. However slowly though, stars do evolve.

The same physics applies to balloons: filling a balloon with helium will keep it aloft, but switch out the helium for the same mass of heavier air molecules and you need a heater to keep it in the air a hot-air balloon. The rate of nuclear reactions goes up as the core temperature rises, and the Sun shines more brightly.

It is about 30 percent brighter today than when the Earth was young. We estimate the ages of stars by simulating them on a computer and trying to match their properties to those of the stars we see.

The process relies on a lot of measurements and simplifying assumptions—from the temperature-dependent rates of many different nuclear ­reactions, to the absorbing and emitting properties of atoms under temperatures and pressures inaccessible on Earth, to the treatment of convection and rotation in the stellar interior. A full three-dimensional simulation of a star over its entire lifetime is well beyond the reach of any supercomputer.

The basic picture of stellar evolution was worked out decades ago: stars use up their hydrogen fuel, their cores contract and heat up, and sufficiently massive stars can fuse the helium into heavier and heavier elements. Eventually, either a star cannot attain the temperatures and pressures needed to fuse the next element, or it has fused all the way to iron the most stable element and cannot extract any more nuclear energy.

The stellar core becomes a compact remnant a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole , and its outer layers either drift off into space or are thrown off violently in a supernova. The lifetime and fate of a star depend mostly on its mass, with massive stars living short lives, shining brightly, and dying in supernovae. While the outline of stellar evolution is clear, it is the details that matter for ­stellar ages.

Advances are made with careful improvements to stellar modeling, and typically make small differences in the results. Occasionally, though, it becomes possible to model an important physical effect that was previously neglected. This is now the case with stellar rotation. Rotating stars burn more hydrogen over their lives; they live longer and shine brighter than their nonrotating counterparts.

Rotating stellar models are forcing us to reconsider the ages of nearby star clusters, making them as much as 25 percent older than had been thought. These cluster ages are often used to anchor other dating techniques. Revising them could lead to a sort of domino effect, where many physical processes happen a bit more slowly than we had thought.

More intriguingly, stellar rotation may also explain a recent puzzle. Some star ­clusters seem to show a range of several hundred million years in age, much longer than standard star formation theory predicts.

Just a few million years after forming, the most massive stars in a cluster end their lives as powerful supernova explosions, blowing away the remaining interstellar gas and cutting off star formation.

Stellar rotation provides a simple solution: rotating stars can mix more fuel into their cores, increasing their supply of available energy and slowing the stellar aging process.

These clusters have a range not of ages , but of aging rates. The effect is even stronger when considering that rapid rotation flattens a star. The poles of a rotating star are hotter than the equator; someone viewing the star pole-on will see a higher temperature and a larger area. Vega, one of the brightest stars in the night sky, is a very rapid rotator seen nearly pole-on. Viewed edge-on, Vega would only appear to be half as bright. A population of Vega clones oriented in all directions would show a wide range of apparent temperatures and luminosities, exactly the properties that we use to infer ages.

As stellar models continue to improve, a new tool has begun to offer a window into stellar interiors. Our best data on the interior of the Earth comes from measuring vibrations, from earthquakes to waves crashing on a shore, as they travel through rock, mantle, and core.

These waves propagate differently depending on the material and allow us to peer inside the Earth. The same thing happens in stars, where convection and mixing stir up the stellar interior, which vibrates in response. We can detect these vibrations as tiny fluctuations in brightness produced by waves on the stellar surface. By measuring their frequencies, we learn about the conditions deep in the stellar interior. The Kepler satellite is famous for detecting thousands of exoplanets by their transits across the faces of their host stars.

These have allowed us to probe far below the stellar surface, into the cores where hydrogen fuses into helium over billions of years. The composition of the core tells us how much hydrogen has been burned, while the amount of starlight tells us how fast the core must be using up its nuclear fuel.

Kepler has now brought the former measurement within reach. We build space telescopes like Kepler and its successor TESS mostly to find planets. But thanks to these missions, it may soon be possible to know the age of almost any bright star in the sky.

Timothy Brandt is a NASA Sagan Fellow and a Member in the School of Natural Sciences. He studies how rotation changes our age estimates for stars and star clusters, and how rotation can resolve the puzzle of apparent age spreads seen in some clusters. Breadcrumb Home Ideas Dating the Earth, the Sun, and the Stars. Natural Sciences. Might stellar rotation explain the variance of ages seen in star clusters?

Timothy David Brandt · Published Email Share Tweet. Anthony Ayiomamitis. Star clusters have a range not of ages, but of aging rates. Above: NGC Scott Tremaine. Matias Zaldarriaga. Timothy David Brandt.

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Matias Zaldarriaga. At the time of this writing, this number still stands. New chemical analyses appear to show that some of the early mantle rock may have survived until today in rock formations called flood basalts. This article summarizes the purpose, history, and intermediate findings of the RATE project five years into an eight-year effort. These cluster ages are often used to anchor other dating techniques. Magazine Article More and More Wrong Dates.

Professor willard libby proved his radiocarbon date for that is available to decay of radioactive carbon 14 is only good for dating holocene, it. The RATE dating on the earth online has confirmed the trustworthiness of Scripture, thus upholding its authority, and has shown that the battle is not between science and the Bible, dating on the earth online. Thank You! This is the idea that, today, enables scientists including many past and present Members of the Institute to understand the afterglow of the Big Bang and to see the universe as it wasyears after it formed. The slope of the line gives the age of the rock. Rotating stellar models are forcing us to reconsider the ages of nearby star clusters, making them as much as 25 percent older than had been thought. He later partnered with V.

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